Bose-Einstein Effects

The `BoseEinstein` class performs shifts of momenta of identical particles to provide a crude estimate of Bose-Einstein effects. The algorithm is the BE_32 one described in [Lon95], with a Gaussian parametrization of the enhancement. We emphasize that this approach is not based on any first-principles quantum mechanical description of interference phenomena; such approaches anyway have many problems to contend with. Instead a cruder but more robust approach is adopted, wherein BE effects are introduced after the event has already been generated, with the exception of the decays of long-lived particles. The trick is that momenta of identical particles are shifted relative to each other so as to provide an enhancement of pairs closely separated, which is compensated by a depletion of pairs in an intermediate region of separation.

More precisely, the intended target form of the BE correlations in BE_32 is
f_2(Q) = (1 + lambda * exp(-Q^2 R^2)) * (1 + alpha * lambda * exp(-Q^2 R^2/9) * (1 - exp(-Q^2 R^2/4)))
where Q^2 = (p_1 + p_2)^2 - (m_1 + m_2)^2. Here the strength lambda and effective radius R are the two main parameters. The first factor of the equation is implemented by pulling pairs of identical hadrons closer to each other. This is done in such a way that three-momentum is conserved, but at the price of a small but non-negligible negative shift in the energy of the event. The second factor compensates this by pushing particles apart. The negative alpha parameter is determined iteratively, separately for each event, so as to restore energy conservation. The effective radius parameter is here R/3, i.e. effects extend further out in Q. Without the dampening (1 - exp(-Q^2 R^2/4)) in the second factor the value at the origin would become f_2(0) = (1 + lambda) * (1 + alpha * lambda), with it the desired value f_2(0) = (1 + lambda) is restored. The end result can be viewed as a poor man's rendering of a rapidly dampened oscillatory behaviour in Q.

Further details can be found in [Lon95]. For instance, the target is implemented under the assumption that the initial distribution in Q can be well approximated by pure phase space at small values, and implicitly generates higher-order effects by the way the algorithm is implemented. The algorithm is applied after the decay of short-lived resonances such as the rho, but before the decay of longer-lived particles.

This algorithm is known to do a reasonable job of describing BE phenomena at LEP. It has not been tested against data for hadron colliders, to the best of our knowledge, so one should exercise some judgment before using it. Therefore by default the master switch HadronLevel:BoseEinstein is off. Furthermore, the implementation found here is not (yet) as sophisticated as the one used at LEP2, in that no provision is made for particles from separate colour singlet systems, such as W's and Z's, interfering only at a reduced rate.

Warning: The algorithm will create a new copy of each particle with shifted momentum by BE effects, with status code 99, while the original particle with the original momentum at the same time will be marked as decayed. This means that if you e.g. search for all pi+- in an event you will often obtain the same particle twice. One way to protect yourself from unwanted doublecounting is to use only particles with a positive status code, i.e. ones for which `event[i].isFinal()` is `true`.

Main parameters

Assuming you have set `HadronLevel:BoseEinstein = on`, you can regulate the detailed behaviour with the following settings.

`flag  ` BoseEinstein:Pion   (`default = on`)
Include effects or not for identical pi^+, pi^- and pi^0.

`flag  ` BoseEinstein:Kaon   (`default = on`)
Include effects or not for identical K^+, K^-, K_S^0 and K_L^0.

`flag  ` BoseEinstein:Eta   (`default = on`)
Include effects or not for identical eta and eta'.

`parm  ` BoseEinstein:lambda   (`default = 1.`; `minimum = 0.`; `maximum = 2.`)
The strength parameter for Bose-Einstein effects. On physical grounds it should not be above unity, but imperfections in the formalism used may require that nevertheless.

`parm  ` BoseEinstein:QRef   (`default = 0.2`; `minimum = 0.05`; `maximum = 1.`)
The size parameter of the region in Q space over which Bose-Einstein effects are significant. Can be thought of as the inverse of an effective distance in normal space, R = hbar / QRef, with R as used in the above equation. That is, f_2(Q) = (1 + lambda * exp(-(Q/QRef)^2)) * (...).

`parm  ` BoseEinstein:widthSep   (`default = 0.02`; `minimum = 0.001`; `maximum = 1.`)
Particle species with a width above this value (in GeV) are assumed to be so short-lived that they decay before Bose-Einstein effects are considered, while otherwise they do not. In the former case the decay products thus can obtain shifted momenta, in the latter not. The default has been picked such that both rho and K^* decay products would be modified.