ALPGEN Event Interface
This manual page describes the ALPGEN [Man03] event interface
for PYTHIA8. While future versions of
ALPGEN will be able to write out events in LHEF format, previous
versions always output events in an ALPGEN native format (a combination
of a ".unw" and a "_unw.par" file). The ALPGEN component of this code
contains a reader for this native format (for unweighted events), as
well as parameter reading for both ALPGEN native and LHE file formats.
The reader was designed to work together with an implementation of
the ALPGEN-style parton-jet matching
- ALPGEN main options
- Class information
described on the Jet Matching
page. However, it will also work with a implementation of the
Madgraph-style [Alw11] parton-jet matching
JetMatchingMadgraph also described on the
Jet Matching page.
A sensible choice of
JetMatching parameters is needed
when using ALPGEN files with Madgraph-style matching and vice versa.
It should be noted that all the functionality described here is provided
through external routines, and therefore the presence of these features is
dependent on the main program being used. This structure allows for the
easy extensibility of the merging scheme. The files of interest are located
GeneratorInput.h : provides three classes for the reading of
ALPGEN event and parameter files.
LHAupAlpgen is an
class for reading in ALPGEN native format event files.
AlpgenPar is a class for the parsing of ALPGEN parameter
files, making the information available through a simple interface.
AlpgenHooks is a
UserHooks derived class that
Alpgen:* options, described below. Further
technical details of these classes are given at the end of this manual
main32.cc, main32.cmnd : a sample main program and card
file showing the usage of previous file and an MLM
class. In combination, it reads in a sample ALPGEN (or Madgraph) event file
while performing the MLM merging procedure as implemented in ALPGEN
(or as in Madgraph). Some commented-out sets of options are provided
in the card file, which can be activated to try different merging setups.
main32.unw, main32_unw.par : an ALPGEN format event and
parameter file containing 100 W + 3 jet events. It is not feasible
to package large event files with the PYTHIA distribution, but this
sample is enough to show the different components in action.
ALPGEN main options
These following options are provided by the AlpgenHooks class,
which must be loaded for this functionality to be present
ALPGEN event files that have been written out in LHEF format should be
read in through the normal LHEF machinery
(see Beam Parameters). Files in
ALPGEN's native format, instead, may be processed using the
Alpgen:file option below. When using this option, the
ALPGEN parameter file is stored in the PYTHIA Info object under the key
AlpgenPar, see the "Header information" section of the
Event Information manual page for
more details. Processes not implemented by the PYTHIA 6 interface
supplied with ALPGEN are also not implemented here.
When reading in ALPGEN native event files, some momenta are shifted by
the file reader to ensure energy-momentum conservation. The magnitude of
these shifts should be small (around the MeV level in the worst case)
and warnings will be produced if they are above a set threshold. A large
number of warnings may signify unexpected behaviour and should
potentially be investigated. It is also known that certain event
classes, for example an event with both light and heavy b
quarks may give rise to these warnings.
The ALPGEN file reader supports the reading of the event and parameter
files in gzip format with file extensions ".unw.gz" and "_unw.par.gz"
respectively. This requires the use of external libraries, however, and
README file in the main directory contains instructions
on how to enable this.
Alpgen:* options apply to both LHE and native
file formats, and include options to guide the MLM merging procedure
based on the parameters that are read in with the events file.
default = void)
This option is used to read in ALPGEN format event files. Using this option
overrides any previously set beam options inside PYTHIA. The path to the
files, not including any file extension, should be provided e.g. for input
files input_unw.par and input.unw, the value
input should be used.
default = off)
When switched on, c and b quark masses provided
by ALPGEN are set in the PYTHIA
Since ALPGEN may set these two masses to vanish, the parton shower
programs have been provided with some protection, but other parts of
the code may not be as fortunate. You should therefore only switch on
this option if you know what you are doing.
default = on)
When switched on, t, Z, W and H
masses provided by ALPGEN are set in the PYTHIA
default = on)
When switched on, the merging parameters (see below) are set according to
the ALPGEN hard process cuts:
JetMatching:eTjetMin = min(ptjmin + 5., 1.2 * ptjmin),
JetMatching:coneRadius = drjmin,
JetMatching:etaJetMax = etajmax.
etajmax are the incoming ALPGEN parameters. Note that any
existing values of these parameters are overwritten.
default = on)
When switched on, the
JetMatching:nJet parameter (see below)
is set to the incoming
njet ALPGEN parameter. Note that any
existing value of this parameter is overwritten.
Some more technical information about the different classes is given
below. For clarity, some limited information on certain private methods
This class is derived from the
LHAup base class, and
uses the standard machinery to pass initialisation and event data to
PYTHIA. These standard functions are not documented here. The complete
parameter file is stored in the PYTHIA Info object, if given, under the
LHAupAlpgen::LHAupAlpgen(const char *baseFNin, Info *infoPtrIn = NULL)
The constructor for the class takes the base filename for the ALPGEN
format files (without file extensions) and optionally a pointer to a
PYTHIA Info class, used for warning/error message printing and for
storing the ALPGEN parameter file. The event and
parameter files are opened immediately, with the
class, described below, used to parse the parameter file.
This is a private method used when an event is read in. The information
read from the event file does not always contain a complete listing of
all particles and four-momenta, and so various details must be
reconstructed. Exactly which details are filled in can vary based on the
ALPGEN process in question.
This is another private method used when an event is read in.
It shuffles and rescales momenta in an event to ensure energy-momentum
conservation. First, pT is made to balance by splitting any
imbalance between all outgoing particles with their energies also
scaled. Second, the e/pZ of the two incoming particles are
scaled to balance the outgoing particles. Finally, any intermediate
resonances are recalculated from their decay products.
This class parses an ALPGEN parameter file and makes the information
available through a simple interface. The information is stored
internally in key/value (string/double) format. All lines prior to:
************** run parameters
are ignored, and in the general case, a line e.g.
10 3.00000000000000 ! njets
would be stored with key "njets" and value "3.0". The following lines
are special cases where the line may be split or the key translated:
3 ! hard process code
0.000 4.700 174.300 80.419 91.188 120.000 ! mc,mb,mt,mw,mz,mh
912.905 0.0914176 ! Crosssection +- error (pb)
100 29787.4 ! unwtd events, lum (pb-1) Njob= 2
In the first line, the key "hard process code" is translated to
"hpc". In the second, the mass values are split and each given an entry
in the internal store. In the third, the cross section and cross section
error are stored under the keys "xsecup" and "xerrup" respectively.
Finally, the number of events and luminosity are stored under the keys
"nevent" and "lum" respectively. In the event that a duplicate key is
present, with differing values, the stored value is overwritten and a
AlpgenPar::AlpgenPar(Info *infoPtrIn = NULL)
The constructor does nothing except for store the PYTHIA Info
pointer, if given. This is used for warning/error message printing.
bool AlpgenPar::parse(const string paramStr)
This method parses an ALPGEN parameter file. The parameter file is
passed as a single string, mainly intended to be read out from the
PYTHIA Info object using the header information methods.
bool AlpgenPar::haveParam(const string ¶mIn)
Method to check if a parameter with key
paramIn is present.
Returns true if present, else false.
double AlpgenPar::getParam(const string ¶mIn)
int AlpgenPar::getParamAsInt(const string ¶mIn)
Return the parameter with key
paramIn as a double or
integer. The presence of a parameter should have already been checked
haveParam() function above. If the parameter is
not present, 0 is returned.
void AlpgenPar::void printParams()
Method to print a list of stored parameters.
UserHooks derived class
provides all the
Alpgen:* options. It is provided as a
UserHooks class such that the code works regardless of whether ALPGEN
native or LHE file formats are used. It is declared with virtual
inheritance so that it may be combine with other UserHooks classes, see
the "Combining UserHooks" section below.
The constructor takes a PYTHIA object as input, so that the beam
parameter settings can be overridden if the
option is given. If this is the case, an
instance is automatically created and passed to PYTHIA.
This is the only UserHooks method that is overridden. It is called
directly after PYTHIA has initialised the beams, and therefore the
header information should be present in the PYTHIA Info object. The
AlpgenPar class is used to parse ALPGEN parameters, if
present, which are then used to set further PYTHIA settings.